Social anthropology
 
Category: Social anthropology
The purpose of every economy is to satisfy human wants by using limited or scarce resources available and known to a society. These wants can be satisfied by production and consumption of goods and services. For production, the factors of production are engaged in some economic activities. These economic activities bring income to the economic agents that can either be consumed or saved and invested. On account of these gainful economic activities and accumulated earnings, some countries grow fast while others cannot attain such high growth rate.
1103 days ago
 
It is possible to identify all societies, in their economic dimensions, as lying within one of five categories: the traditional society, the preconditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption. First, the traditional society. A traditional society is one whose structure is developed within limited production functions, based on pre-Newtonian science and technology, and on preNewtonian attitudes towards the physical world.
1103 days ago
 
Inheritance is a major means for the transfer, or exclusion from the transfer, of people’s accumulated physical capital. The transfer of physical assets from the parent to the child generation can provide the start-up material for the younger generation’s more independent future livelihoods and economic productivity (Fafchamps and Quisumbing, 2005). However, exclusion from assets inheritance can exacerbate vulnerability to chronic poverty and the intergenerational transmission of poverty (Bird et al., 2004).
1103 days ago
 
The European conquest and absorption of native American Indian groups obviously produced tremendous changes in the way Indians live and interact with one another. One very important source of change in Indian life was the changes in the rules and institutions of Indian law. Few Indian groups had any sort of strong central legal authority before Europeans began to exert vari- ous types of influence on the evolution of Indian law. This does not mean that there was no law, however. Evolving unwritten social contracts among Indian groups had produced well-developed legal systems based on customary rules of conduct which emphasized individual rights and private property. Adjudication procedures were in place to solve disputes without violence.
1103 days ago
 
Archaeologists have ignored taboo as a general phenomenon in antiquity despite taboo’s clear universality within human religious experience. Why? And what can be done about this omission? In this essay I suggest that archaeologists have overlooked the subject for methodological reasons: to identify taboos one must typically build arguments using negative evidence, and this poses obvious problems given archaeology’s broadly materialist orientation. The obvious challenges notwithstanding, I argue that a rigorous archaeology of taboo is possible, providing we train ourselves to look for meaningful absences in the material record.
1103 days ago
 
When most Americans hear the word magic,they most likely picture a rabbit being pulled out of a hat or someone on television making an elephant disappear. What is popularly called magic we shall call illusion, since magic in this sense refers to acts that rely on some sort of trickery and deception. Entertainers in our culture who perform such illusions freely admit that they are manipulating not the supernatural world, but rather human perception. Magic, as anthropologists use the term, refers to activities, usually rituals, by which a person can compel the supernatural to behave in certain ways.
1103 days ago
 
Comparative politics, and especially the study of institutional origins and organizational actors, has much to gain from a serious consideration of faith, doctrine, and religious hierarchies. First, for scholars of ethnicity and identity, religion presents new analytical challenges. Unlike other attributes, many religious identities are not fungible, or easily altered, and conversion costs do not simply follow from the distance traveled. Even small doctrinal differences can become insurmountable, making religious identities uniquely costly to change. Second, in the development of institutionsandpolicy,thesedoctrinaldifferencestranslateintodistinctconfigurationsofsecular institutions.
1103 days ago
 
One of the hallmarks of American business in the past decade has been the attempts by large organizations to manage large-scale planned change. In some cases — AT&T, Chrysler, and Apple, for example — the efforts have been dramatic and have captured public attention. Other cases, such as Corning Glass, Xerox, Citicorp, and GTE, have received less attention, but the changes have been no less profound.
1103 days ago
 
The question animating this encyclopedia can be simply put. The answers to it, however, are difficult and complex, intertwined with and complicated by a host of cultural, environmental, and religious variables. This encyclopedia represents an effort to explore this question in a way that illuminates these relationships without oversimplifying the dynamic relations between human beings, their religions, and the natural environment.
1103 days ago
 
We analyse an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations compete on criminal activities and engage in corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid and difficult to bribe, and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. When bribing costs are low – that is badlypaid and dishonest law enforcers working in a weak governance environment – and the rents from criminal activity relative to legal activity are sufficiently high, we find that increasing policing and sanctions can generate higher crime rates. In particular, the relationship between the traditional instruments of deterrence, namely intensification of policing and increment of sanctions, and crime is non-monotonic.
1103 days ago
 
Tribal leadership is a shared leadership, organized by the clan system, guided and sustained by elders through the teaching of language and telling of stories. Tribal leadership is about role and relationships, the clan system, elders, women, families, children, moms and dads, chokas (grandpas) and kakas (grandmas), aunts and uncles. All have a role in the leadership of the tribe.
1103 days ago
 
Philip Hudson entered Morehouse College at age 19 wearing men’s jeans and long hair tied back in dreadlocks. “The first day I got to campus, I was a boy,” Philip recalled a few years later. He said he was “trying to be this masculine boy, real cool and real quiet.” By the end of his sophomore year, Philip had swapped his jeans for skirts and found himself the target of a strong backlash (King 2010). Morehouse College made national news for its response to the teen’s lifestyle, establishing a schoolwide ban on the wearing of women’s clothing by men (Chen 2010).
1103 days ago
 
"I hope that these papers offer a cohesive approach to some of the major issues which English law faces as it approaches a new century in a new ambience of human rights." The Author taken from the Preface.In this title, based on the 50th series of Hamlyn Lectures, Lord Justice Sedley reconsiders the themes of freedom, law and justice, echoing the subject of the first Hamlyn Lectures by Lord Denning in 1949. The lectures present a timely discussion of law and freedom in the wake of the passing of the Human Rights Act 1998.
1103 days ago
 
WarrenE.Buffett,therenownedchairmanandchiefexecutiveofficerofOmaha, Nebraska-based Berkshire Hathaway, Inc., started an investment partnership with $100 in 1956 and has gone on to accumulate a personal net worth in excess of $30 billion. It is intriguing that Buffett credits hissuccesstoabasicunderstandingof managerialeconomics.
1103 days ago
 
The mark of a capitalistic society is that resources are owned and allocated by such nongovernmental organizations as firms, households, and markets. Resource owners increase productivity through cooperative specialization and this leads to the demand for economic organizations which facili- tate cooperation.
1103 days ago
 
Ross and Janet have been married more than forty-seven years. They have two children, a daughter-in-law and a son-in-law, and four grandsons. Few would dispute the notion that all these members are part of a common kinship group because all are related by birth or marriage.
1103 days ago
 
- Gender and Kinship reflect the most basic principles of organizing individuals into social groups, roles in society. - Kinship and Gender Distinctions are Universal - Some form of organization based perceived sexual differences and concepts of family/relatedness are present in every human society. - Nature .v.s. Nature: to what extent are kinship/gender divisions based on biology or constructed culturally? - All cultures have their own unique rules to guide gender, kinship relations, family structure, residence patters and marriage.
1103 days ago
 
We examine thepopulation-environment relationshipat the local communitylevel byfocusingon theimpact of population changes on changes inlanduse.Weconstruct a theoretical frameworkforthe studyof microlevel population-environment relationshipsthat guidesthe appropriate specification of empirical models and emphasizes the multidimensional nature of populationimpacts onland use.
1103 days ago
 
Cannibalism, Jurassic Park, hidden treasure, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, ancient prehuman fossils. And the Fountain of Youth in China? The popular impression of anthropology is based mainly on movies and television shows that depict anthropologists as adventurers and heroes. Many anthropologists do have adventures and discover treasures such as ancient pottery, medicinal plants, and jade carvings. But most of their research is not glamorous. Some anthropologists spend years in difficult physical conditions, searching for the earliest fossils of our ancestors. Others live among people in Silicon Valley, California, and study firsthand how they work and organize family life in a setting permeated by modern technology.
1103 days ago
 
The term anthropology is a combination of two words derived from Greek language: anthropos and logos. The term anthropos is equivalent to the word mankind or human being, while logos means study or science.putting the two words together, anthropology is the study or science of mankind or humanity.
1103 days ago
 
Theories about hominin evolution are often connected i ntimately with notions of what it is to be human. Such ideas have had a particularly strong infl uence on thinking about the defi nition and origin of the human genus (see Landau, 1993; Wood and Collard, 1999; Wood, 2009). Many, if not most scenarios for the evolution of the genus Homo emphasize the importance of quintessentially human traits such as large brains, tool-making, and complex cognition. Usually these derived features have been interpreted, explicitly or implicitly,
1103 days ago
 
What makes us similar to some people in the world but different from most others? The answer is culture. Culture is the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group. Culture acts as a blueprint for how a group of people should behave if they want to fit in with the group. It ties us to one group and separates us from other groups—and helps us to solve the problems that all humans face. Culture involves the following factors: • food and shelter • education • religion • security/protection • relationships to • political and social family and others organization • language • creative expression.
1103 days ago
 
Cultural identities are marked by a number of factors – ‘race’, ethnicity, gender and class to name but a few; the very real locus of these factors, however, is the notion of difference. The question of difference is emotive; we start to hear ideas about ‘us’ and ‘them’, friend and foe, belonging and not belonging, in-groups and out-groups, which define ‘us’ in relation to others, or the Other.
1103 days ago
 
Culture is a huge topic of study for sociologists. In this lesson, we define culture and distinguish between material and nonmaterial culture. As culture, nation, and society are often used interchangeably, we also distinguish between these three concepts.
1103 days ago
 
Ecologiesshapecultures;culturesinfluencethedevelopmentofpersonalities. There are both universal and culture-specific aspects of variation in personality. Some culture-specific aspects correspond to cultural syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism, and collectivism. A large body of literature suggests that the Big Five personality factors emerge in various cultures. However, caution is required in arguing for such universality, because most studies have not included emic (culturespecific) traits and have not studied samples that are extremely different in culture from Western samples.
1103 days ago
 
1-25 of 27
Per page: 
1