Science and Biochemistry
 
Category: Science and Biochemistry
Proteins constitute the major part by dry weight of an actively growing cell. They are widely distributed in living matter. All enzymes are proteins. Proteins are built up from about 20 amino acids which constitute the basic building blocks. In proteins the amino acids are linked up by peptide bonds to from long chains called polypeptides.
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Antigen processing and presentation, MHC, complement system. Bacterial, viral, protozoal and parasitic infections
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DNA might not be directly involved in protein synthesis An Enzyme –RNA polymerase, catalyzes the synthesis of RNA strands from DNA strands
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Colonies carrying the recombinant clones are differentiated fromnormal colonies using colony selection. As in case of recombinant insulin, three types of E.colicolonies grow on agar: normal colonies, colonies with A chain Insulin protein and colonies with B chain insulin protein.
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Amino acids are obtained in diet and/or turnover of cellular proteins.
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Nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose monosaccharide, and one, two, or three phosphate groups. The nitrogen-containing bases belong to two families of compounds: the purines and the pyrimidines.
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the classification hierarchy. Starting from a lipid category, the user can navigate through the hierarchy by clicking on the "[+]" icon next to a main class name. This will expand that item to reveal its sub classes.
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Hydrolysis of triacylglycerols, transport of fatty acids into mitochondria (Carnitine), Detailed account of β-oxidation of fatty acids (β-oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes), Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids & odd carbon fatty acids. α and ω Oxidation- Brief idea. ATP yield from fatty acid oxidation. Regulation.
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DNA was in the nucleus but proteins were made in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus was exported to the cytoplasm
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Gene transcription is regulated by protein transcription factors that bind to operator DNA and thus influence the ability of RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter region and initiate transcription.
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DNA polymerase plays the central role in the processes of life. It carries the weighty responsibility of duplicating our genetic information. Each time a cell divides, DNA polymerase duplicates all of its DNA, and the cell passes one copy to each daughter cell.
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This lecture explores the mechanisms of DNA replication and also the ways in which DNA can repair any replication errors. It also looks at some of the causes of DNA damage and what failure of the repair mechanism can lead to.
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The toxicokinetic strategy to be adopted for the use of alternative routes of administration, for example by inhalation, topical or parenteral delivery, should be based on the pharmacokinetic properties of the substance administered by the intended route.
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The citric acid cycle oxidizes acetate into two molecules of CO2 while capturing the electrons in the form of 3 NADH molecules and one molecule of FADH2. These reduced molecules contain a pair of electrons with a high transfer potential.
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we examined the regulation of energy conversion pathways in cells and saw how the absorption of sunlight by photosynthetic organisms was used as an energy source to drive carbohydrate synthesis in the form of starch and sucrose.
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the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms. a system of holistic therapy in which massage and other physical therapies are used in conjunction with psychotherapy.
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The ability of urea to denature proteins has been known for 100 years.1 Urea is also effective in denaturing more complex biological systems: “A dead frog placed in saturated urea solution becomes translucent and falls to pieces in a few hours.
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Chemical reaction kinetics deals with the rates of chemical processes. Any chemical process may be broken down into a sequence of one or more single-step processes known either as elementary processes, elementary reactions, or elementary steps.
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Additions or reductions to any one side of the reaction will shift the reaction the opposite direction
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catalyze the transfer of hydrogen or oxygen atoms or electrons from one substrate to another, also called oxidases, dehydrogenases, or reductases. Note that since these are ‘redox’ reactions, an electron donor/acceptor is also required to complete the reaction.
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The major structural and functional molecules produced by cells are proteins. They are important in host defense, cell structure, movement, and as regulatory molecules.
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Measurements of isotopeconcentrations; are performed through mass spectrometry. Water is reacted to form either hydrogen or carbon dioxide. These gases are ionized and passed through a potential where the momentum of the heavier species retards their eflection in a magnetic field and create a separation of flow on the basis of weight.
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The purpose of the next lab exercises will be to study the relative amounts of β-actin in cells of the B-16 melanoma, liver and muscle of mice.
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A centrifuge is a device that separates particles from suspensions or even macromolecules from solutions according to their size, shape and density by subjecting these dispersed systems to artificially induced gravitational fields. Centrifugation can only be used when the dispersed material is denser than the medium in which they are dispersed.
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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.
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