Political Economy
 
Category: Political Economy
Every member nation has a seat at the General Assembly.  Brings up international issues that they want the Security Council to deal with  Holds elections for Security Council members and other leaders
1160 days ago
 
The American-led forces might have reestablished the 38th parallel and called the war a success for the containment doctrine. It would have been a surgically precise intervention, short but arduous, a sweet and telling defeat for the Communists and clear evidence of American credibility. No one could ever have taken this victory away from Harry Truman. But as the war proceeded during the summer, nearly all of Truman’s high advisers decided that the chance had come not only to contain Communist aggression, but to roll it back.
1160 days ago
 
First let us see what Pope Pius XI has to say about the radical instability of human society. The best statement of his views is to be found in a discourse delivered on May 15, 1926, to a group which had been commemorating the thirty-fifth anniversary of Pope Leo XIII’s Encyclical Rerum Novarum (“On the Condition of the Working Classes”). This discourse is in the direct line of Pope Pius XI’s own great Encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno, which was written just five years later, on the fortieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. As a matter of fact, the discourse is quoted (at Paragraph 49) in Quadragesimo Anno, and the reference given; so that it is obvious that it should be studied with the latter document.
1160 days ago
 
1. The injuries to be compensated should be put as a schedule which can be revised without a law amendment. 2. There should be review of slabs of compensation every 3 years. 3. The injury may not be physical in nature but has to be quantifiable in terms of monetary loss it entails, job loss/ medical care/ re-location/ counseling/ side effects, example psychological and psychosomatic injuries that are linked to the assault
1160 days ago
 
A primary responsibility of directors and officers is to ensure that the organization is accountable for its programs and finances to its contributors, members, the public and government regulators. Accountability requires that the organization comply with all applicable laws and ethical standards; adhere to the organization’s mission; create and adhere to conflict of interest, ethics, personnel and accounting policies; protect the rights of members; prepare and file its annual financial report with the Internal Revenue Service and appropriate state regulatory authorities and make the report available to all members of the board and any member of the public who requests it. The development and maintenance of the organization’s internal controls will help to ensure accountability.
1160 days ago
 
Human rights number among the great philosophical accomplishments of the modern age. By virtue of the moral fascination they exerted and the revolutionary power they unleashed, they have had a formative effect on the course of history in many different, lasting ways over the last 250 years and today they represent the only system of values that can lay rightful claim to universal validity. Not only are they effectively embodied as the supreme legal norms in the constitutions of all nations in this world, but by adopting – and to a varying extent – ratifying international human rights treaties, all nations have committed themselves under international law to respecting, protecting and fulfilling these fundamental rights of human beings.
1160 days ago
 
Democracies are diff erent from each other and none can be considered a model for others. Democratic governments can take several forms, including presidential (as in France, Romania or Russia) or parliamentary (as in the United Kingdom, Slovakia or Spain). Others, such as Germany, have federal governmental structures.
1160 days ago
 
Donor concern with strengthening civil society in the South is a recent phenomenon. It appears to have emerged from the new policy agenda on good governance that was increasingly promoted by official donors during the 1980s and the early 1990s. As a result of this agenda, Northern donors began to explicitly promote political reform through development cooperation. For some donors this meant advocating policies that limited state interference and reduced corruption in the public sector. There was a particular emphasis on aid recipient countries improving their records on democratic elections, human rights and the rule of law, to name some of the more common areas of reform. Although it would be misleading to assume that all official donors held the same policy, there was a convergence of opinion among them that long-term economic development could not take place without improved systems of government.
1160 days ago
 
After the thirteenth century, the Christian Wisdom tradition went into its long decline. The unity between revelation and philosophy, which St. Thomas had brought about, did not long survive his death. The synthesis between Platonic and Aristotelian metaphysics, through which St. Thomas' integration of knowledge had been accomplished, was abandoned by the anti-metaphysical nominalists on the fourteenth-century university faculties.
1160 days ago
 
The first and most important consequence of the principles I have laid down is that the directing of the state in the light of the object for which it was instituted, i.e. the common good, must be done by the general will. The •clashing of particular interests made it •necessary to establish a society, and the •agreement of those same interests made it •possible to do
1160 days ago
 
Focuses on actions and consequences rather than intentions  States that we should act in a way that will benefit the largest number of people
1160 days ago
 
Wages are determined through the antagonistic struggle between capitalist and worker. Victory goes necessarily to the capitalist. The capitalist can live longer without the worker than can the worker without the capitalist. Combination among the capitalists is customary and effective; workers’ combination is prohibited and painful in its consequences for them. Besides, the landowner and the capitalist can make use of industrial advantages to augment their revenues; the worker has neither rent nor interest on capital to supplement his industrial income. Hence the intensity of the competition among the workers. Thus only for the workers is the separation of capital, landed property, and labour an inevitable, essential and detrimental separation. Capital and landed property need not remain fixed in this abstraction, as must the labor of the workers.
1160 days ago
 
Sir Robert, having not been very happy in any proof he brings for the sovereignty of Adam, is not much more fortunate in conveying it to future princes; who, if his politics be true, must all derive their titles from that first monarch. The ways he has assigned, as they lie scattered up and down in his writings, I will set down in his own words: in his preface he tells us, that “Adam being monarch of the whole world, none of his posterity had any right to possess any thing, but by his grant or permission, or by succession from him.”
1160 days ago
 
In the last section, theorists focused on how people come to share common understandings of a situation  In other words, how people come to know the rules of the game  People’s behavior will reflect this understanding  Once they know the rules, they will follow them  But this approach ignores the possibility of self-interest  Even people who know the rules might be tempted to cheat
1160 days ago
 
Human rights are universal values and legal guarantees that protect individuals and groups against actions and omissions primarily by State agents that interfere with fundamental freedoms, entitlements and human dignity. The full spectrum of human rights involves respect for, and protection and fulfilment of, civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, as well as the right to development. Human rights are uni- versal—in other words, they belong inherently to all human beings—and are interdependent and indivisible.
1160 days ago
 
The main argument of the liberal view is the importance of economic ties for both countries. In this perspective, the global interconnection between national economies should result in greater peaceful cooperation between great powers like India, China and Russia, rather than hostilities. Growing consumer classes in India and China want to consume high quality goods for affordable prices in a secure environment; insecurity and war is not an option for them.
1160 days ago
 
There have been studies that try to measure the impact of import liberalisation in general, and there are others that measure the impact specifically in regard to the recent WTO agreements. Studies by Anderson and Tyres (1993), Subramanian (1993) and Parikh et al. (1995) use macro techniques like computable general equilibrium models to study the effects of policy liberalisation. Anderson and Tyres predict that Indian farmers, including landless rural labourers, will benefit to the tune of 1.6 billion and the net increase in the economic welfare would be 1.1 billion in 1985 US dollars.
1160 days ago
 
India’s test of a “peaceful” nuclear device in 1974 was not followed by further tests, although research intensified. By the early 1990s, India seemed to have the fissile material and technology for a limited nuclear-weapon capability. It had also developed missiles with ranges from 75 to 1,500 miles. India’s decision to test warheads in May 1998, debated by successive Indian governments for nearly a decade, had been almost conducted 3 years earlier. Pakistan quickly followed with its own tests.
1160 days ago
 
The executive body of the EU is the European Commission. The European Commission is made up of individual commissioners, one from each Member State (although this number may be reduced as of the new Commission to be appointed in 2014),4 and appointed by agreement between the parliament and the Council. In addition to their personal office (or cabinet), these commissioners are supported by Directorates-General (DGs), akin to ministries. Each has a name and a shorthand name usually presented in capital letters.5
1160 days ago
 
India today represents a fascinating coalescence of caste, ethnic, religious and regional groupings, often cutting across each other, that has produced arguably the world’s oldest and, during many centuries, most successful, pluralistic society. The vibrancy of its democratic experiment combined with its heterogeneous society and rapidly growing economy has caught the attention of observers around the world.
1160 days ago
 
During the eight years of the post-Cold War period (during both the Bush and Clinton administrations), America policy toward Russia was based on the premise that Russia could be integrated into the Western-based international system. That system does not require its members to take a specific form: there is considerable variation among the economic systems and political institutions of the leading advanced industrial countries. It does, however, include baseline assumptions about reliance on markets, competition, and private ownership in economic life, and on elections, human rights, and constitutional order in political life. While far from all members meet the theoretical ideals these assumptions imply, among the most important and successful participants in this Western-based international system are those countries that adopt essential elements of democracy and the market.
1160 days ago
 
•Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower women worldwide. •Feminism can be defined as a recognition and critique of male supremacy combined with efforts to change it.
1160 days ago
 
Gender has been a central ‘issue’ in India since the colonial encounter. An overwhelming preoccupation with the “woman’s question” arose from the 19th century social reform movement, crucially informed anti-colonial nationalism, and remains a point of crisis in India’s cultural, social, and political space. The recognition of gender as an issue forms the basis for India’s women’s movement.
1160 days ago
 
The supreme importance of biological diversity on human well-being has been much documented in the ecological literature. Among the various processes currently endangering this diversity, the ones most often studied are rapid population growth, increased industrial pollution, and changing patterns of resource use occasioned by rising incomes and urbanisation. The WIDER programme has identified and explained the importance of two further sources of degradation of biological diversity and the environmental resource base
1160 days ago
 
Adam Smith had a key insight in to the importance of markets and private initiative that market was the most creative and dynamic engine known to man and that this market required a very minimal state, providing very minimal functions. That markets required very thin level of governance has survived both in textbooks as well as in libertarian tradition that is still actually very-· strong in United States, which views markets as separate and disembodied from politics as long as the government simply protects property rights and undertakes national defence functions, nothing else is required for markets really to prosper.
1160 days ago
 
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