Nature Biotechnology
 
Category: Nature Biotechnology
Although they are widely used in load bearing applications, their ability to bond with bone and their bone conductivity is considerably smaller than ceramic biomaterials. These biomaterials, of which glass ceramics and calciumphosphate ceramics are well known, have in common that they are all bioactive. This means that these materials are capable of forming a very tight bond with the existing bone which typically occurs when an apatite layer can precipitate on the material surface.
1238 days ago
 
Although they are widely used in load bearing applications, their ability to bond with bone and their bone conductivity is considerably smaller than ceramic biomaterials. These biomaterials, of which glass ceramics and calciumphosphate ceramics are well known, have in common that they are all bioactive. This means that these materials are capable of forming a very tight bond with the existing bone which typically occurs when an apatite layer can precipitate on the material surface.
1238 days ago
 
Testing and characterization of cell–scaffold constructs. In general, one of the main obstacles in the clinical development of cell–scaffold products is the development of appropriate in vitro and in vivo testing and characterization methods. This is a direct consequence of the unique set of characteristics that many of these products share. These include (1) complexity in three-dimensional structure, (2) heterogeneity in composition, (3) small manufacturing lot sizes (sometimes a ‘‘lot size of 1’’), and (4) expected remodeling of the product after implantation.
1238 days ago
 
Many scaffold injuries involve problems with planks. If scaffold planks are uncleated or otherwise unsecured they easily slide off – this causes a surprising number of injuries. Scaffold planks can also break if they are in poor condition or overloaded. It is therefore important to use proper grades of lumber and to inspect planks before erection to ensure that there are no weak areas, deterioration, or cracks. Another common problem is insufficient or excessive overhang of planks at their support..
1238 days ago
 
The ECM is a mixture of many different molecular components that varies between organisms and also between tissues within one organism, and sometimes also varies with developmental age. The internal structure of the ECM is highly organized, the organization arising partly from the innate properties of its constituent molecules and partly from the activities of the cells that produce it. Cells embedded in theECMmake contact with it mainly through specialized matrix receptor molecules. These allow the cells to adhere to the matrix and may also signal the presence of particular matrix components to the internal machinery of the cell, allowing the matrix to control cell behaviour
1238 days ago
 
New blood vessel formation is a critical requirement in many vascular diseases and in tissue engineering. Coronary artery disease is a major health problem for over 12 million Americans, resulting in 571,000 coronary artery bypass surgeries annually. An increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease are not candidates for revascularization through traditional surgical methods. Therapeutic angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels via branching from existing vessels, holds great promise to aid this patient population.In addition, the entire tissue engineering field is limited by the need for vascularity in large tissues and organs for nutrient and waste transport
1238 days ago
 
It is a process that incorporates established ethical and scientific quality standards for the design, conduct, recording and reporting of clinical research involving the participation of human subjects. Compliance with GCP provides public assurance that the rights, safety, and well-being of research subjects are protected and respected, consistent with the principles enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki and other internationally recognized ethical guidelines, and ensures the integrity of clinical research data. The conduct of clinical research is complex and this complexity is compounded by the need to involve a number of different individuals with a variety of expertise, all of who must perform their tasks skillfully and efficiently.
1238 days ago
 
The marrow is at centre stage for future technological developments in tissue engineering, not only as the only organ in which at least two types of stem cells (HSCs and SSCs) reside, but also as the organ in which progenitors for a number of distant tissues can be found. Recent studies indicate that the traditional wall separating the haematopoietic and mesodermal tissue systems and lineages is being demolished. Cells capable of regenerating blood vessels, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are found in the marrow.
1238 days ago
 
When molecules containing thiol (-SH) groups are oxidized, they combine to form disulfides.When the -CH2SH side chains of two cysteine residues undergo the same reaction, the resulting disulfide bond is called a disulfide bridge. Disulfide bonds are easily reduced to re-form thiol groups.
1238 days ago
 
Many of the methods today that predict protein structure use information from the protein data bank (PDB). This information can be found in the parameters of knowledge-based scoring functions, the training sets of machine learning approaches, and the coordinate libraries of methods that use fragments or templates from the PDB. In order to test the performance of any one of these approaches, one must carefully remove sequences that are homologous to proteins in the test set from all databases used by the method in question. Any errors or oversights made at this stage could lead to overestimates of success. For these reasons, the Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP), a biannual, community-wide blind test of prediction methods, was conceived and implemented.
1238 days ago
 
Proteins have important role in physiological processes and they are involved in movement, catalysis, recognition, regulation etc. Moreover, proteins also have several therapeutical and industrial applications. Advances in Molecular Biology have enabled us to manipulate DNA and express a foreign gene in other organism (hetrologous expression). This has made advancement in the process of making changes in proteins at genetic level. Proteins are not always optimized for their properties for various applications and usefulness of a protein may be limited by low stability and /or undesired substrate specificity. Protein Engineering is the process of developing proteins with desired function by manipulating stability and specificity of a protein. There are two main approaches for protein engineering, rational design and directed evolution (irrational design)
1238 days ago
 
Biological systems are very complex and heterogeneous systems; phenomenological approaches are necessary in order to study their function in detail. Many proteins have to recognize their partners to form functional assemblies. Here we have an assembly allowing the replication of DNA.
1238 days ago
 
Pharmacodynamics: is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect.,Pharmacokinetics: the study of the time course of substances and their relationship with an organism or system (ADME).
1238 days ago
 
The docking field has come of age.The time is ripe to present the principles of docking, reviewing the current state of the field. Two reasons are largely responsible for the maturity of the computational docking area. First, the early optimism that the verypresence of the “correct” native conformationwithinthe list of predicteddockedconformations signals a near solutionto the docking problem, has been replaced by the stark realization of the extreme difficulty of the next scoring/ranking step. Second, in the last couple of years more realistic approaches tohandlingmolecular flexibilityindocking schemes have emerged.
1238 days ago
 
Computer assisted language learning (CALL) is both exciting and frustrating as a field of research and practice. It is exciting because it is complex, dynamic and quickly changing – and it is frustrating for the same reasons. Technology adds dimensions to the already multifaceted domain of second language learning, requiring new knowledge and skills for those who wish to incorporate it into their professional practice or understand its impact on the language teacher and learner. Yet the technology changes so rapidly that CALL knowledge and skills must be constantly renewed to stay apace of the field.
1238 days ago
 
Drug discovery and development is an interdisciplinary, expensive and time-consuming process. Scientific advancements during the past two decades have changed the way pharmaceutical research generate novel bioactive molecules. Advances in computational techniques and in parallel hardware support have enabled in silico methods, and in particular structure-based drug design method, to speed up new target selection through the identification of hits to the optimization of lead compounds in the drug discovery process. This review is focused on the clinical status of experimental drugs that were discovered and/or optimized using computer-aided drug design. We have provided a historical account detailing the development of 12 small molecules (Captopril, Dorzolamide, Saquinavir, Zanamivir, Oseltamivir, Aliskiren, Boceprevir, Nolatrexed, TMI-005, LY-517717, Rupintrivir and NVP-AUY922) that are in clinical trial or have become approved for therapeutic use.
1238 days ago
 
Scientific scepticism: Scientists are sceptical about the credibility or reliability of indigenous knowledge gathered through interviews, preferring “hard” data such as biophysical data. Some may dismiss traditional knowledge as subjective, anecdotal, and unscientific.
1238 days ago
 
The operating system is a special type of program that loads automatically when you start your computer. The operating system allows you to use the advanced features of a modern computer without having to learn all the details of how the hardware works The link between the hardware and you, the user Makes the computer easy to use without having to understand bits and bytes!
1238 days ago
 
Planning is a general term that sets a clear road map that should be followed to reach a destination. The term, therefore, has been used at different levels to mean different things. Planning involves the breakdown of the project into definable, measurable, and identifiable tasks/activities, and then establishes the logical interdependences among them.
1238 days ago
 
Intellectual property (IP) law has three major branches, applicable to different types of subject matter: copyright (original artistic and literary works of authorship), patent (inventions of processes, machines, manufactures, and compositions of matter that are useful, new, and nonobvious), and trademark (commercial symbols). The source of federal copyright and patentlaw originates with the Copyright and Patent Clause of the U.S. Constitution, which authorizes Congress “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts.
1238 days ago
 
Irrespective of the content any organized information is a file. So be it a telephone numbers list or a program or an executable code or a web image or a data logged from an instrument we think of it always as a file. This formlessness and disassociation from content was emphasized first in Unix.
1238 days ago
 
When somebody buys the copyright they purchase the right to reproduce the specific arrangement of words or notes upon a page; they purchase the right to copy the particular arrangement of sounds or images upon a disc.
1238 days ago
 
In terms of Intellectual Property (IP), the implementation stage assumes particular importance as the use and dissemination of projects results (‘foreground’) is a key objective of any FP7 project. Therefore you should plan the management, use and dissemination of the foreground as early as possible. As will be further explained in this document, already at the proposal stage you have to present a strategy or outline of your activities with regard to exploitation, use and dissemination, which will be the basis for the plan for use and dissemination of the foreground (PUDF).
1238 days ago
 
Two general issues concerning the overall relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the CBD that have been raised in the discussion are: whether or not there is conflict between the TRIPS Agreement and the CBD ,whether something needs to be done, at least on the TRIPS side, to ensure that the two instruments are applied in a non-conflicting and mutually supportive way, and if so, what.
1238 days ago
 
The use of nanotechnology to develop a suite of sustainable energy production schemes is one of the most important scientific challenges of the 21st century. The challenge is to design, to synthesize, and to characterize new functional nanomaterials with controllable sizes, shapes, and/or structures. To summarize the progress of the research and development made in this important field, the Fuel Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) organized a symposium on “Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy and Fuels” during the 240th ACS National Meeting in Boston, MA on August 2226, 2010, with the ACS Catalysis Division as the cosponsor. This symposium was a global gathering of leading scientists at the intersection of energy and nanotechnology.
1238 days ago
 
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