Management science in Production
 
Category: Management science in Production
Group Purchasing Organizations (GPOs). Group purchasing organizations provide a critical financial advantage to providers, especially hospitals and hospital systems, by negotiating purchasing contracts for products and nonlabor services. A typical GPO has many hospital organizations as its members and uses this as collective buying power in negotiating contracts with many suppliers: of pharmaceuticals, medical-surgical supplies, laboratory, imaging, durable medical equipment, facility maintenance, information technology, insurance, and food and dietary products and services.
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A hierarchical design model has the following advantages: 1. Scalability
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It is important to highlight what is allowed and what is not allowed by this pair of assumptions. One possibility that they rule out is scale economies and production functions with fixed costs, because in those cases a firm may decide not to produce one unit of a good at a certain price, while being willing to produce ten units at the same price, violating same-side substitutability.
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The first VALUE ANALYSIS (VA) program was established in the General Electric, USA by about 1947, since then the programme has received considerable attention and many successful applications have been reported. Though the technique started with analysis of purchased items it has been extended to manufactured items as well. The idea behind Value Analysis is not new. The approach to the problem essentially differs from that of the other Cost Reduction techniques.
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Industrial Design is therefore a part of innovation. It makes its most significant contribution, as indicated above, in differentiation of similar products either by making them appear very different through colour and style, or by enhancing them with detail and minor additional features. In more radical innovation where new technology is involved, industrial design usually has a less central role because the novelty is provided by the new functionality.
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An objective function expresses the main aim of the model which is either to be minimized or maximized. For example, in a manufacturing process, the aim may be to maximize the profit or minimize the cost. In comparing the data prescribed by a user-defined model with the observed data, the aim is minimizing the total deviation of the predictions based on the model from the observed data. In designing a bridge pier, the goal is to maximize the strength and minimize size.
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Products should be well designed and provide benefits to everyone who comes into contact with them. A product can:  Improve the quality of life for a user  Give an improved performance over previous models  Provide the user with status  Minimise manufacturing costs
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 Developing New Products/Services  Sources of Product Innovation  Getting Them to Market Faster  Designing and Developing New Services  Improving Current Products/Services  Designing for Ease of Production  Designing for Quality
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The design of a logistics network involves determining how to supply products to customers at the least cost while providing the desired level of service. The level of service can include both the time required for delivery to the customer and the availability of the product. Given the location of available transshipment points (e.g., ports and DCs), the design problem includes issues like selecting the best mode of transportation between each point in the network, the frequency and quantity of each shipment, and the amount of each product to be stored at each DC.
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The proponents of this theory argue that satisfaction is the function of what a person actually receives from his job situation and what he thinks he should receive or what he expects to receive. When the actual satisfaction derived is less than expected satisfaction, it results in dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are functions of the perceived relationships between what one wants from one‟s job and what one perceives it is offering. This approach does not make it clear whether or not over satisfaction is a part of dissatisfaction and if so, how does it differ from dissatisfaction. This led to the development of equity theory of job satisfaction.
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Equity Theory. Equity theory was a result of the work of J. Stacy Adams and states that when individuals determine whether the compensation they receive is fair compared to their coworkers’ compensation, any perceived inequity will affect their motivation.
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Organizational behavior is the systematic study of human behavior, attitudes and performance within an organizational setting; drawing on theory methods and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology and cultural anthropology to learn about individual perceptions, values, learning capacities and actions while working in groups and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as groups- act within the total organization; analyzing the external environment’s effect on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives and strategies.
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Visual Illusions: The human eye-brain system is arguably the most sophisticated computing system which we have access to. It can easily handle complex visual processing and pattern recognition tasks which would be impossible to attempt on even the most powerful supercomputer. If we are going to use our visual skills to assist us in data analysis, it is important to remember that they have evolved to handle quite different tasks from those encountered in a typical data analysis.
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MBO approach to Motivation: • System of management that emphasizes on a particular set of goals that are tangible, verifiable and measurable. • It is the method by which managers and employees jointly set goals for work performance and personal development, periodically evaluate the employee’s progress towards achieving these goals and integrating of individual, team, departmental and organizational goals.
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This unit employs mixed-method delivery utilising face-to-face teaching with flexible learning and additional learning resources provided via MyLO (the UTAS learning management system). The face-to-face teaching is based around and twelve (12) topic areas or themes of content. Weekly lectures will be supported by weekly tutorials, which will provide a review of lecture theory, an opportunity to discuss the material with your tutor and fellow students, and explore a range of additional learning activities. Weekly tutorials will also support students with the internal assessment tasks.
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The demand for leadership training is significant. The supply of leadership training is vast. Access to scholarly books, journals, and website information is easy, if not overwhelming. Yet the demand for leadership training and capacity building continues. Most leadership programs focus on the broad range of identified leadership competencies. In this note, it is suggested that public sector leadership training must focus on the environments within which leaders work, not only on the competencies required to effectively navigate those environments.
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It is characterized by high levels of complexity, formalization and centralization. A highly mechanistic system is characterized by centralized decision making at the top, a rigid hierarchy of authority, well but narrowly defined job responsibilities especially at lower levels, and extensive rules and regulations which are explicitly make known to employees through written documents. In mechanistic organization, labor is divided and subdivided into many highly specialized tasks (high complexity), workers are granted limited discretion in performing theirs t a sks and rules and procedures are carefully defined (high formalization); and there is limited participation in decision making which tends to be conducted at the highest levels of management high centralization.
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Knowledge is being developed and applied in new ways. The information revolution has expanded networks and provided new opportunities for access to information. It has also created new opportunities for generating and transferring information. Knowledge networks and sharing of information have expedited innovation and adaptation capacity.
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Information technology (IT) is a technology which uses computers to gather, process, store, protect, and transfer information. Today, it is common to use the term Information and communications technology (ICT) because it is unimaginable to work on a computer which is not connected to the network.
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•Goal: to catalog knowledge competencies, including information not typically captured by human resources systems, in a way that could later be queried across the organization to help locate intellectual capital. •Significant challenge in the development of ELS, knowledge repositories, and digital libraries, deals with the accurate development of knowledgetaxonomies.
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• Inputs, outputs, processes and stores information • Physical: Keyboard, monitor, etc. – are these necessary components
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The best companies around the world are discovering a powerful new source of competitive advantage. It's called supply-chain management and it encompasses all of those integrated activities that bring product to market and create satisfied customers. The Supply Chain Management Program integrates topics from manufacturing operations, purchasing, transportation, and physical distribution into a unified program. Successful supplychain management, then, coordinates and integrates all of these activities into a seamless process.
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1. Product Synchronization 2. Mixed Model Process Maps 3. Sequence of Events 4. Demand at Capacity
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 In virtually all modern manufacturing systems, most of the actual processing or assembly work is accomplished by machines or with the aid of tools  Classification of production machines: 1. Manually operated machines are controlled or supervised by a human worker 2. Semi-automated machines perform a portion of the work cycle under some form of program control, and a worker tends the machine the rest of the cycle 3. Fully automated machines operate for extended periods of time with no human attention
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Researchers and practitioners indicated that several modifications to existing systems should be undertaken prior to JIT implementation. First, JIT requires a modified approach by top management which may include significant modifications; such as, designing an organization that integrates strategy with people to achieve the basic premise of JIT.
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