Electronics for Medicine
 
Category: Electronics for Medicine
TE is the systematic performance of planned physical movements, postures or activities intended to enable the patient/client to: ◦ Remediate or prevent impairments ◦ Enhance function ◦ Reduce risk ◦ Optimize overall health ◦ Enhance fitness & well-being,Therex may include: ◦ Agility training ◦ Balance training (static & dynamic) ◦ Body mechanics training ◦ Breathing exercises ◦ Coordination exercises ◦ Gait and locomotion training ◦ Neuromuscular re-education ◦ Postural stabilization ◦ ROM exercises & soft tissue stretching ◦ Relaxation exercises AROM: movements performed voluntary efforts of the patient without external aid  AAROM: movements performed by both voluntary efforts by patient along with assistance of an external force .
1181 days ago
 
Stroke is a major health problem in the UK. Each year, approximately 110,000 people in England, 11,000 people in Wales and 4,000 people in Northern Ireland have a first or recurrent stroke. Most people survive a first stroke but often have significant morbidity. More than 900,000 people in England are living with the effects of stroke. Stroke mortality rates in the UK have been falling steadily since the late 1960s. The development of stroke units following the publication of the Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of stroke unit care[1], and the further reorganisation of services following the advent of thrombolysis, have resulted in further significant improvements in mortality and morbidity from stroke (as documented in the National sentinel stroke audit[2]). However, the burden of stroke may increase in the future as a consequence of the ageing population.
1181 days ago
 
The first amputees were undoubtedly survivors of accidental amputations . Similarly, the first adaptive device was probably a forked stick used as a crutch to substitute for the lost function of an amputated leg. The eventual invention of a padded peg leg was a major technical breakthrough and became common practice for several centuries. There are historical accounts of armor manufacturers designing marvelously ingenious artificial joints as early as the 15th and 16th centuries (1). It was not until the 20th century, however, that any significant technological gains were made in prosthetic devices. Today, a wide variety of technically sophisticated prosthetic appliances are available, many of which exhibit amazingly lifelike function and appearance. As advanced as the new devices are, however, their use by amputees is still severely hampered by problems at the interface between the appliance and the residual limb,
1181 days ago
 
Process through which people and organizations accomplish goals. • Through communication we share: ¾ Attitudes ¾ Values ¾ Emotions ¾ Ambitions ¾ Wants ¾ Needs • Successful communication is well planned and thoughtfully executed. • Failed plans are often the result of failed attempts at communicating. • Communication can avoid waste and confusion Communication Process Communication is transmission of information. • The goal is common understanding. • Sender = the initiator of communication. • Receiver = the person or group who gets the communication. • Message = the information that is transmitted. • Medium = channel or means chosen by the sender to transmit the message. • Feedback = information from receiver showing how they received the sender’s message.
1181 days ago
 
This document has been produced by the Prosthetics & Orthotics Interest group of RESMaG to identify guidelines that can be used as a benchmark for rehabilitation engineering services involved in the prescription, provision and repair of prosthetic and orthotic devices. It is to be used in conjunction with Rehabilitation Engineering Services: Functions, Competencies, and Resources [1]. Many NHS providers and commissioners are unclear of the service provided by Rehabilitation Engineers and the framework in which they work. This is, in part, due to the relatively small numbers of Healthcare Science Associates, Rehabilitation Engineers and Clinical Engineers working in the NHS.
1181 days ago
 
More and more Canadians are travelling with mobility aids on planes, trains and ferries. To ensure that passengers receive the accommodation they require, everyone needs to be involved in planning and preparation, including travellers, travel agents and transportation service providers. This resource tool can help. It provides information about:  how to plan travel with a mobility aid;  Canadian standards and regulations for accessible transportation;  Carriers’ policies and procedures for small and large mobility aids; and  how mobility aids are loaded and transported. Where applicable, information about mobility aids is divided into two categories:  small: prostheses, canes, crutches, walkers, some foldable wheelchairs, etc.; and  large: rigid-frame or foldable manual wheelchairs, electric wheelchairs, scooters, etc.
1181 days ago
 
As communities become increasingly multicultural and multilingual, professionals in the disability and health care fields face both tremendous challenges and great opportunities as they work with individuals from diverse and complex Muslim backgrounds. Unlike previous monographs in the series published by the Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information and Exchange (CIRRIE) that focus on the cultures of specific countries, this publication focuses primarily on the broad category of Muslims living in the United States, including immigrant, refugee, and indigenous Muslims. Although we focus primarily on Muslims in the United States, the ideas presented here should transfer well to other countries, such as the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. By addressing a population that has been seriously overlooked and misrepresented, we hope this monograph will fill a void in the literature on disability intended for use by rehabilitation and health care professionals.
1181 days ago
 
We assessed 46 Syme’s amputees attending our prosthetic clinics in terms of the clinical and radiological condition of their stumps, their level of function and problems with the prosthesis. Twenty-five were compared with a matching group of 25 transtibial amputees in regard to activity, function and prosthetic behaviour. Function was similar in the two groups, but Syme’s amputees had a higher incidence of prosthetic failure. Overall, Syme’s amputees were pleased with their prostheses and their function. Childhood amputations were associated with fewer longterm problems in terms of function and stump problems Syme’s amputation is indicated for congenital foot deformities, fibular hemimelia and severe injury to the foot as long as the heel pad remains viable.
1181 days ago
 
One neuron can’t do much on its own. Usually we will have many neurons labelled by indices k, i, j and activation flows between them via synapses with strengths wki, wij: It takes some care to keep track of all the neural activations and connection weights in a network without introducing confusion or ambiguity. There are numerous complications, for example: Each neuron has input and output activations, but the outputs from one neuron provide inputs to others. The network has input and output neurons that often need special treatment. Most networks will be built up of layers of neurons, and it makes sense to number the neurons in each layer separately, but the weights and activations for different layers must be distinguished. The letters used for labels/subscripts are arbitrary, and limited in number.
1181 days ago
 
Radial basis function (RBF) networks are feed-forward networks trained using a supervised training algorithm. They are typically configured with a single hidden layer of units whose activation function is selected from a class of functions called basis functions. While similar to back propagation in many respects, radial basis function networks have several advantages. They usually train much faster than back propagation networks. They are less susceptible to problems with non-stationary inputs because of the behavior of the radial basis function hidden units. Popularized by Moody and Darken (1989), RBF networks have proven to be a useful neural network architecture. The major difference between RBF networks and back propagation networks (that is, multi layer perceptron trained by Back Propagation algorithm) is the behavior of the single hidden layer.
1181 days ago
 
Having established the basis of neural nets in the previous chapters, let’s now have a look at some practical networks, their applications and how they are trained. Many hundreds of Neural Network types have been proposed over the years. In fact, because Neural Nets are so widely studied (for example, by Computer Scientists, Electronic Engineers, Biologists and Psychologists), they are given many different names. You’ll see them referred to as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Connectionism or Connectionist Models, Multi-layer Percpetrons (MLPs) and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP). However, despite all the different terms and different types, there are a small group of “classic” networks which are widely used and on which many others are based. These are: Back Propagation, Hopfield Networks, Competitive Networks and networks using Spiky Neurons. There are many variations even on these themes.
1181 days ago
 
Research on second-language acquisition over the past two decades has been a proliferation of quasi-experimental and experimental studies that address the effectiveness of various instructional treatments in L2 classrooms as well as in library settings (Norris and Ortega, 2001). The question of whether or not grammar should be taught has been persistently debated in the fields of language pedagogy and second language acquisition. Moreover, the topic of error correction in the second language (L2) classroom tends to spark controversy among both language teachers and L2 acquisition researchers. Teachers may have very strong views about error correction, based on their own previous L2 learning experiences,
1181 days ago
 
It seems natural to try to base our AI systems on the human nervous system. This can be broken down into three stages that may be represented in block diagram form as: Stimulus Response Receptors collect information from the environment, and effectors generate interactions with the environment. The flow of information between them is represented by arrows – both forward and backward. What we generally describe as “intelligence” is normally carried out in the central stage – in the brain. The brain is known to consist of an interconnected network of neurons, and the study of neural networks is now a major sub-field of AI.
1181 days ago
 
A neural network (or more formally artificial neural network) is a mathematical model or computational model inspired by the structure and functional aspects of biological neural networks. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons. The original inspiration for the term Artificial Neural Network came from examination of central nervous systems and their neurons, axons, dendrites and synapses which constitute the processing elements of biological neural networks. The first model of a neuron was presented in 1943 by W. Mc Culloch and W. Pitts, and in 1958 Rossenblatt conceived the Perceptron. His work had big repercussion but in 1969 a violent critic by Minsky and Papert was published. The work on neural network was slow down but John Hopfield convinced of the power of neural network came out with his model in 1982 and boost research in this field.
1181 days ago
 
Several formulations of correlation-based Hebbian learning are reviewed. On the presynaptic side, activity is described either by a firing rate or by presynaptic spike arrival. The state of the postsynaptic neuron can be described by its membrane potential, its firing rate, or the timing of backpropagating action potentials (BPAPs). It is shown that all of the above formulations can be derived from the point of view of an expansion. In the absence of BPAPs, it is natural to correlate presynaptic spikes with the postsynaptic membrane potential. Time windows of spike-time-dependent plasticity arise naturally if the timing of postsynaptic spikes is available at the site of the synapse, as is the case in the presence of BPAPs. With an appropriate choice of parameters, Hebbian synaptic plasticity has intrinsic normalization properties that stabilizes postsynaptic firing rates and leads to subtractive weight normalization.
1181 days ago
 
•Neural Networksare networks of neurons, for example, as found in real (i.e. biological) brains •Artificial neuronsare crude approximations of the neurons found in real brains. They may be physical devices, or purely mathematical constructs. •Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs) are networks of Artificial Neurons and hence constitute crude approximations to parts of real brains. They maybe physical devices, or simulated on conventional computers. •From a practical point of view, an ANN is just a parallel computational system consisting of many simple processing elements connected together in a specific way in order to perform a particular task •One should never lose sight of how crude the approximations are, and how over-simplified our ANNsare compared to real brains.•They are extremely powerful computational devices •Massive parallelism makes them very efficient •They can learn and generalize from training data –so there is no need for enormous feats of programming
1181 days ago
 
Power systems are experiencing more and more uncertainties especially under a deregulated environment. The system uncertainty may come from various sources but the main contribution is from uncertainties in system parameters and forecasted loads. Because of deregulation, in many cases the ISO or ITO planners have no access to Independent Power Producer (IPP) facilities, and therefore can not perform filed test in order to measure the real system parameters. Consequently uncertainties are inevitably introduced into the ISO or ITO’s planning process. This has resulted in challenges for system planners in an open assess electricity market. In order to have a comprehensive picture of the system stability in planning, probabilistic stability assessment is attracting more and more attention over the traditional deterministic approach.
1181 days ago
 
Power and sample size analysis optimizes the resource usage and design of a study, improving chances of conclusive results with maximum efficiency. The standard statistical testing paradigm implicitly assumes that Type I errors (mistakenly concluding significance when there is no true effect)aremorecostlythanTypeIIerrors(missingatrulysignificantresult). Thismaybeappropriate for your situation, or the relative costs of the two types of error may be reversed. For example, in screeningexperimentsfordrugdevelopment, itisoftenlessdamagingtocarryafewfalsepositives forward for follow-up testing than to miss potential leads. Power and sample size analysis can help you achieve your desired balance between Type I and Type II errors. With optimal designs and sample sizes, you can improve your chances of detecting effects that might otherwise have been ignored, save money and time, and perhaps minimize risks to subjects.
1181 days ago
 
CLOCK distribution is a crucial aspect of modern multi-GHz microprocessor design. Conventional distribution schemes are more or less monolithic in that a single clock source is generated by an on-chip phase-locked loop (PLL) and then fed through hierarchies of clock buffers and interconnects to eventually drive the entire chip (Fig. 1). This raises a number of challenges. First, the non-uniform load of the clock network and deterioratingprocess, voltageand temperature (PVT) variations give rises to spatial timing uncertainties known as clock skews. To minimize the global clock skew, the global clockdistribution network has to be balanced by meticulous design of the interconnects and buffers [5]. This practice puts a very demanding constraint on the physical design of the chip. Another practice is to use a grid instead of a tree for clock distribution,
1181 days ago
 
Wireless sensor networks are poised to transform the way society interacts with the physical world, driven by an explosion of systems research in sensor networks. Sensor networks have been proposed and deployed for a wide variety of applications such as habitat monitoring [13, 23], structural monitoring, and emergency medical response [7, 12]. While the application space seems limitless, it is actuallylimitedbytheoperatinglifetimeofthebattery-operated wireless sensor nodes. Current deployments rely on commercially available wireless sensor network devices (e.g., Mica2 [4]). Such devices typically consist of a basic microcontroller, a radio, and a variety of (often MEMS-based) sensors. One of the main limitations of these platforms is which themselves are not specifically designed for wireless sensor networks.Asaresult,theysufferseveralinefficienciesthatlead to high power consumption and limited operational lifetimes. To address this limitation,
1181 days ago
 
Combinational logic circuits that were described earlier have the property that the output of a logic block is only a function of the current input values, assuming that enough time has elapsed for the logic gates to settle. Yet virtually all useful systems require storage of state information, leading to another class of circuits called sequential logic circuits. In these circuits, the output not only depends upon the current values of the inputs, but also upon preceding input values. In other words, a sequential circuit remembers some of the past history of the system—it has memory. Figure 7.1 shows a block diagram of a generic finite state machine (FSM) that consists of combinational logic and registers that hold the system state. The system depicted here belongs to the class of synchronous sequential systems, in which all registers are under control of a single global clock. The outputs of the FSM are a function of the current Inputs and the Current State.
1181 days ago
 
Intel co-founder Moore’s low describe the growth of VLSI Industries that is double of number of transistors in every eighteen month Althougy after few year VLSI industry will reach to its saturation condition i.e. growth rate of density of component will not increase as recent years but demands of portable, long durable, lighter battery will never decrease. Specific weight (stored energy per unit weight) of batteries barely double in several years.Besides technological issues, further increase in specific weight will soon draw safety concern because the energy density is approaching that of explosive chemicals. So battery technology alone will not solve the low power problem in near future.
1181 days ago
 
a graphical programming environment that allows one to design and analyze a DSP system in a shorter time as compared to text-based programming environments. LabVIEW graphical programs are called Virtual Instruments (VIs). VIs run based on the concept of data flow programming
1181 days ago
 
The introduction of the concept of integrated circuits in 1958 by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce enabled the electronics industry to achieve a phenomenal growth over the past several decades. The dimensions of semiconductor devices have been continuously shrinking to meet the needed requirements of high speed and low power as demanded by the circuit designers. Moore’s law has been a well-established rule of thumb for scaling device dimensions. Minimum feature sizes of MOSFET devices have shrunk considerably since 1970, thereby increasing the number of transistors in a single integrated circuit as illustrated in Figure 2.1. The minimum features of an integrated circuit and its devices have been scaled down by a factor of 0.7 per technology node every 3 years since 1975 [2]. The rapid scaling of transistors has resulted in increased functionality per single chip, improvement in processing speed and memory capacity, and decrease in cost and power consumption per function.
1181 days ago
 
 The front panel contains controls and indicators. Controls are inputs that let the user enter data, such as switches, knobs. Indicators are outputs that display data to the user, such as graphs, numeric displays.
1181 days ago
 
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