Animal biology
 
Category: Animal biology
biotechnology is not a single technology. Rather it is a group of technologies that share two (common) characteristics -- working with living cells and theirmolecules and having a wide range of practice uses that can improve our lives. Biotechnology can be broadly defined as "using organisms or their products for commercial purpose
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The application of technology to improve a biological organism Detailed Definition The application of the technology to modify the biological function of an organism by adding genes from another orga
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The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably. However bioinformatics more properly refers to the creation and advancement of algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems inspired from the management and analysis of biological data. Computational biology, on the other hand, refers to hypothesis-driven investigation of a specific biological problem using computers, carried out with experimental or simulated data, with the primary goal of discovery and the advancement of biological knowledge.
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energy for growth and other life processes (metabolic processes). The chemical equation for respiration shows that the photosynthates are combined with oxygen releasing energy, carbon dioxide, and water. A simple chemical equation for respiration is given below. N
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What is healthy food? This question touches everybody and is able to raise high emotions. Food fads come and go, their respective supporters fighting each other with gusto. The habit of consuming high-fat meat or meat products like briny ham or sausages on a daily basis, common in affluent parts of the world, certainly isn’t healthy. But neither is the opposite, a purely vegetarian or vegan diet, for lack of B12 and usable iron, which need to be substituted.
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The use of enzymes in the diagnosis of disease is one of the important benefits derived from the intensive research in biochemistry since the 1940's. Enzymes have provided the basis for the field of clinical chemistry.It is, however, only within the recent past few decades that interest in diagnostic enzymologyhas multiplied. Many methods currently on record in the literature are not in wide use, and there are still large areas of medical research in which the diagnostic potential of enzyme reactions has not been explored at all.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incorporates the disorders of the heart and circulatory system. These include coronary heart disease (angina and heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (embolism, aneurysms and stroke), rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and peripheral arterial disease.1,2 This factsheet examines the links between smoking and CVD, the mechanisms by which smoking causes CVD and how a person’s risk may be reduced.
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- Select flat or slightly sloppy, fertile, porous, loamy, sandy loam or clay loam soils, (slightly acidic PH : 6-7) - Soil testing is to be done prior to establishment of garden. - Rectify highly acidic or alkaline soil by application of lime and gypsum respectively. - Acidic soil (PH below 6.8) is to be corrected by adding liming materials like dolomite, calcitic lime stones, burnt lime, hydrated lime, lime sludge and slags depending upon the availability. Ground lime stone application is common.
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Shrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapods(they have 10 feet) • Hundreds of spp. found in brackish and marine • All farm-raised shrimp and most of the shrimp caught by fishermen belong to the Penaeidae family of decapod crustaceans and are referred to as "penaeids".
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“Chemical substances” refers to chemical compound created by causing chemical reactions tooccur to elements or compounds. The chemical substances subject to the Chemical Substance Control Law are those used for general industrial chemical products. Those substances that are subject to other regulations that are equally or more stringent regulations (Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Act) or more specific to the usage of the substance (Food Sanitation Act) are exempted from this law.
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Aquaculture has been been practiced in many Asian countries for centuries, but is a new form of agriculture in many African and Latin American countries. It is defined as the cultivation of animals and plants in aquatic environments. Aquaculturists manipulate certain components of the environment to achieve greater control over production of aquatic organisms than is normally possible in nature.
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Immunity and Immune Response • Immune system identifies antigens (foreign proteins or polysaccharides) – Components of microbes or their partiallydegraded byproducts and – Other foreign proteins and polysaccharides(including nucleic acids) • Host (human or animal) antigens not made by the individual are also antigens – Result: in graft, transplant rejection
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the question of whether the form genera and form species were “natural” genera and species was left open for future investigators. Cohn regarded the form genera as natural entities but considered species largely artificial. Since the taxonomic ranks used to describe bacterial form taxa were adopted from those used for the more highly evolved organisms, one can assume that the existence of natural relationshi
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The four best known DNA sequencing techniques are reviewed. Important practical issues covered are read-length, speed, accuracy, throughput, cost, as well as the automation of sample handling and preparation. The methods reviewed are : (i) the Sanger method and its
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Lymph Nodes- are small nodular aggregates of lymphoid tissue situated along lymphatic channels throughout the body. Since nodes are clustered at junctions of the lymphatic vessels they are the first organized lymphoid structure to encounter most antigens that enter the tissue
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• Characteristics – amniotic egg • chorion - outermost membrane • allantois - surrounds waste cavity • amnion - encases embryo • yolk sac - surrounds yolk (food) – dry skin – thoracic breathing
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success has been achieved in the study of the structure and functions of the genome (adaptive mutations, mobile genetic elements, epigenetics, the horizontal transport of genes, etc.). Many scientists speak about the change of the evolution paradigm and new genetics (see, for example, [1-3]), while other hold, as before, to neo-Darwinian views [4-12]. Does all this new knowledge about genes lead to a new theory of evolution or represent just an improvement of the Darwinian theory of evolution?
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The central event of embryo implantation is the formation of a morphologically and functionally specialized cell-to-cell contact between the endometrium and the blastocyst. This review will focus on cell biological aspects of the initial phase of embryo implantation when the apical cell pole of the uterin
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Fish origins date back 500 million years according to the fossil record. • There are 20,000 different species of fish (both marine and freshwater). • They have a very diverse array of colors, shapes and sizes.
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Sinus Venosus-sac that collects oxygen poor blood from veins; sends blood to Atriumlarge muscular chamber; sends it toVentriclelarge muscular chamber that pumps blood; sends it toBulbus Arteriosus-muscular tube that connects toAorta-large blood vessel that sends blood to gills
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SPERMATOGENESIS Three principal phases: 1. mitosis 2. meiosis 3. spermiogenesis Cell types: 1. spermatogonia 2. primary spermatocytes 3. secondary spermatocytes 4. spermatids 5. spermatozoa
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Two distinct types of cells Inner cell mass: forms the embryo Trophoblast: layer of cells surrounding the cavity which helps form the placent Floats for about 3 days Implantation on about day 6 post conception  Trophoblast erodes uterine wall
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Some organisms (e.g. Chlamydomonas) spend most of their life cycle in the haploid phase, asexually producing daughter cells by mitotic division.
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Mendel’s big ideas: • --Particulate inheritance: the determinants of inherited traits are discrete units that are passed between generations unaltered, not blended together.
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• Penetrance – percent individuals with a given allele that show the phenotype of the allele –
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