Ancient and Modern History
 
Category: Ancient and Modern History
There were many causes for the breakdown of the feudal system including the Plague, political changes in England, and a long series of wars.
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Traditional comparativists sought to distinguish between different types of regime: that is clusters of regimes which share sufficient characteristics to enable them to be considered as belonging to a group of similar regimes.
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Imperialism: The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the economic, political and social life of the people of that nation.
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These are very different matters although theorizing on societal development often have a certain inclination to borrow biological metaphors (Nisbet, 1969, 1980). Now, the concept development – likewise concepts such as e.g. democracy, freedom and justice – must be viewed as an essentially contested concept.
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Economic growth with equality and social justice has always been the prime objective of the development paradigm in India. Alleviation of poverty and unemployment, therefore, has been accorded top priority in rural development programmes since the inception of the planning era.
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The British empire which controlled India began to weaken. This brought nationalist activity in India, Turkey, and in some southwest Asian countries. Indians who attended British schools learned European views of nationalism and democracy. They applied these ideas to their countries.
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ž British, after some convincing, looked upon independence for India favorable ¡  The cost of running an overseas colony after World War II
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The rise of Nationalism is reflected in the spirit of Renaissance in Europe when freedom from religious restrictions led to the enhancement of national identity. This expression of Nationalism was furthered by the French Revolution.
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In the master narrative of the formation of the modern state, its unified, monopoly sovereignty is presented as universal, the natural culmination of a teleological process. We challenge the naturalness and universality of that claim by historicizing the sovereignty concept.
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Social movements primarily take the form of non-institutionalised collective political action which strive for political and /or social change. While India has witnessed many such movements over the centuries, it is only recently that scholars have begun to study them in depth.
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In a democratic system, it is quite common that people use different methods for expressing solidarity and achieving political power. In a country like India, politics has been dominated by promoting communalism and castism.
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Today visual culture is not only omnipresent and surrounding everyone of us, it is also an ever expanding field of studies, engaged in and adding to the creation of meanings with every passing day. It encompasses technologies engineering the production of crafts and commodities through apparatuses and machines programmed to achieve results according to set inputs - as in photography and film making.
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Non-tariff barriers to imports. During the 1980s and before India had a comprehensive import licensing system under which imports of many products were effectively banned and most others were subject to stringent import licensing.
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Shah  Jahan,  also  known  as  Shahbuddin  Mohammed  Shah  Jahan,  was  a  Mughal  Emperor  who  ruled  in  the  Indian.Subcontinent from 1628 to 1658. He was the fifth Mughal ruler, after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir. Shah Jahan..succeeded the throne after revolting against his father, Jahangir. The period of Shah Jahan's rule in India is regarded as the golden  age  of  Indian  architecture.  He  is  credited  with  constructing  numerous  beautiful  monuments  throughout  the landscape of India.  However, the most brilliant monument  is the  'Taj Mahal' of Agra,  which he built  in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
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A lot of questions remain in the study of Sanskrit literary culture—complex and largely unasked questions—and many volumes would be needed to respond to them responsibly for a corpus of texts as vast as that available in Sanskrit.
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Ever since the decline of Congress became apparent, two features of Indian politics have attracted the attention of students of Indian political process. One is the coalition-based structure of party politics and the other is the rise of many smaller and regional parties to prominence in national level politics.
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The Mughal Prince explores how a Muslim, ethnically Turkish, and Persian-speaking dynasty came to establish itself in the Indian subcontinent, becoming over time one of the largest and most dynamic empires in history. Rather than linking Mughal success to the empire’s powerful and imaginative administrative institutions however, it uncovers and details the pivotal role of the Mughal prince in imperial state formation, theorizing thus the ‘princely institution’.
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Most European Countries are “social” democracies not to mention that the United States has many elements of social democracy.
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All Chinese writing uses the same set of characters. There is no connection between the written and spoken forms of language.
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The Chinese Communist Party (CCP, or Zhongguo gongchandang) was founded July 1, 1921, in Shanghai, and started with fifty-seven members. Eighty years later, in 2002, the CCP was the largest national Communist organization in existence, with over sixty-six million members
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Japan chose to isolate (not trade) itself in the 1600’s when the Tokugawa Shogunate took control. A Shogun is a military leader in Japan. The Tokugawa Shogunate was a family who controlled Japan for about 200 years. Tokugawa took control after defeating all the opposing feudal lords.
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In a world where democracy is regarded as a universal value, the political legitimacy of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)’s rule seems to be a suspect. There are calls for democratizing China’s political system, implicitly after the fashion of Western liberal democracies, in particular the American model.
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Giuseppe Mazzini: Mazzini dedicated his life for creation of unified and Republican Italy. He was both romantic and liberal. In 1831, Mazzini founded Young Italy, an organization which was intended to awaken Italy and transform Europe into a brotherhood of free peoples. For Mazzini Italy would be unified by a revolution from the people of Italy against Austrian princes. The revolution arose in 1848 but was severely crushed by Austrian forces.
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A good harvest ends the danger of famine (except in Ireland) but business conditions worsen and the industrial and commercial economy in Europe enters into recession.
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Its chronological focus is the period from 1750 to 1914. Starting with Britain's eighteenth-century pioneering role, it then traces the diffusion of industrialization in northwestern Europe during the nineteenth century and relates it to international trade and especially market-friendly institutional changes associated with eighteenth-century proto-industrialization, the delayed spread of industrialization to eastern Europe to the latter's absence.
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